Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Lindbergh essays

Lindbergh essays Lindberghs nonstop flight across the Atlantic was successful because of his knowledge, his experience, his thoroughness and his luck. Lindbergh had been a stunt pilot on the barnstorming circuit and had flown and navigated mail planes for years. So when he set out to win the twenty five thousand dollar prize offered for the first nonstop flight across the Atlantic, he knew he had enough experience to do it. Now he would have to pick the right plane. He studied all the planes available. With a lot of research and prayer he chose the Ryan Monoplane. Lindbergh had the plane modified, and personally supervised all the modifications. The planes wingspan was extended ten feet to help with take off and all around flight, and also because he might have heard the saying, wider is better. He increased the fuel capacity from fifty to four hundred and fifty gallons. This would allow him to fly the airplane for three hundred miles after he arrived in Paris. He put a two hundred-horse power, radial, air-cooled, Wright Whirlwind engine. The plane now had a top speed of one hundred thirty miles per hour. He added stronger landing gear to support the changes he had made, and he replaced the cockpit seat with a cane chair to further reduce weight. Lindbergh was twenty-five years old when he flew from Long Island, New York to Orly Airport in Paris. He navigated with a magnetic compass and a mariners sextant. He had no radio because the radios were as big as cows back then and also because there was nothing good on the radio then anyway. He brought a bottle of water and five sandwiches: two ham, two beef, and one egg with mayonnaise. After leaving Long Island, the first land Lindbergh saw was Ireland, just as he had planned. He arrived at Orly Airport in Paris after about thirty hours. After the flight Lindbergh was made a hero. Songs of bravery were written about him. One of the most popular was lucky lind ...

Monday, March 2, 2020

A Brief History of the Tampon and Who Invented It

A Brief History of the Tampon and Who Invented It The first tampons were made using a wide variety of materials found in nature. The prevailing thought seemed to be that if it was absorbent, chances are that it would work as a tampon.   Tampons First Appeared in Ancient Egypt For instance, the earliest historical evidence of tampon use can be found in ancient Egyptian medical records that described tampons comprised of material derived from the papyrus plant. In the fifth century B.C., Greek women fashioned their protection by wrapping lint around a small piece of wood, according to writings of Hippocrates, a physician considered to be the father of western medicine. The Romans, meanwhile, used wool. Other materials have included paper, vegetable fibers, sponges, grass and cotton.   But it wasn’t until 1929 that a physician named Dr. Earle Haas patented and invented the modern-day tampon (with applicator). He came up with the idea during a trip to California, where a friend told him how she was able to improvise a more comfortable and effective alternative to the commonly used and bulky external pads by simply inserting a piece of sponge on the inside, rather than outside. At the time, doctors were using plugs of cotton to staunch  secretions and so he suspected a compressed form of cotton would absorb just as well.   After a bit of experimenting, he settled on a design that featured a tightly bound strip of absorbent cotton attached to a string to  allow for easy removal. To keep the tampon clean, the cotton came with an applicator tube that extended to push the cotton into place without the user having to touch it. Tampax and o.b.: Two Brands With Longevity Haas filed for his first tampon patent on November 19, 1931, and originally described it as  a catamenial device, a term derived from the Greek word for monthly. The product name â€Å"Tampax,† which originated from â€Å"tampon† and â€Å"vaginal packs,† was also trademarked and later sold to  businesswoman Gertrude Tendrich  for $32,000. She  would go on to form the Tampax company and begin mass production. Within a few years, the Tampax arrived on store shelves and by 1949 appeared in more than 50 magazines.   Another similar and popular type of disposable tampon is the o.b. Tampon. Invented by German gynecologist Dr. Judith Esser-Mittag in the 1940s, the o.b. Tampon was marketed as a â€Å"smarter† alternative to applicator tampons by emphasizing greater comfort and doing away with the need for an applicator. The tampon comes in the shape of a compressed, insertable pad designed to expand in all directions for better coverage and also features a concave tip so that a finger can be used to push it snugly into place.   In the late 1940s, Esser-Mittag partnered with another physician named  Dr. Carl Hahn to start a company and market the o.b. Tampon, which stands for one binde or without napkins in German. The company was later sold to American conglomerate Johnson Johnson.   One major selling point the company touts on its website is the fact that a non-applicator tampon can be more environmentally friendly. How so? Johnson Johnson states that 90% of the raw materials that go into o.b. tampons come from renewable resources.